METALS All About Metals
SILVER BULLION CALCULATIONS
How can I determine the amount of silver in a given amount of coins?
US Coins minted in 1964 or before are 90% silver and 10% copper. Bags of these 90% coins are called "junk silver". These junk silver coins are sold by the "bag", consisting of a face value of $1000.00. This face value means all the coin denominations equal $1,000. For instance, one face dollar can be 10 dimes or four quarters or two quarters and one half-dollar. A bag of silver weighs just under 55 pounds (US pounds) and contains a gross weight of 800 troy ounces.
800 troy ounces is approximately 715 troy ounces of silver for Mixed coinage or 734 troy ounces of Mercury Dimes or Walking Liberty Half Dollar Bags. Where 715 troy ounces silver represents common circulated coinage (that has had silver wear off the coin over the years) a bag of uncirculated silver is generally considered at 720 troy ounces.
Mercury Dime and Walking Liberty Half Dollar bags cost more than mixed bags, between 4-10% higher depending upon various market factors.
Bags of mixed junk coins (any combination of dimes and quarters) have 800 troy ounces weight per bag.
Troy pound =12 troy ounce
One bag = 66.667 troy pounds
Troy ounce = 31.103 grams
800 troy ounces x 31.103 grams/troy ounce = 24,882.4 grams.
1 pound avoirdupois = 453.59 grams
24,882.4 grams/453.59 grams/av. or Imperial or US pound = 54.85 pounds.
714 troy ounces of silver per bag.
800 troy ounces x 31.103 grams/troy ounce = 24,882.4 grams.
24,882.4 grams/2.5 gram/mercury dime = 9953 mercury dimes.
734 troy ounces per bag.
734 troy ounces x 31.103 grams/troy ounce = 22,829.6
10,000 dimes x 2.5 grams/dime = 25,000 grams
25,000 grams/ 453.59 grams/ lb = 55.12 pounds.
(So, bags of Mercury dimes are actually about 995.30 face value.)
Walking Liberty Half Dollars
Walking Liberty half dollars trade at a premium to spot, about equal to the premium in mercury dimes - between 4-8%.
Kennedy Half Dollar
For 40% Kennedy Halves (1965-1970)
Each bag has 295 ounces of silver. So, if you multiply .295 by the face value of coinage, you can determine number of ounces of silver.
If silver is trading at 11.00, then multiply that x 295 ounces silver in a bag (full bag of 2,000 coins)...$3245. Now divide by 2000 pieces = $1.625 which represents the melt value of silver. However, this is not pure silver so you must discount for that. The lower the purity, the greater the discount off the melt value. So, for 40% silver you will mark off about another 8.5%. Hence, $11.00 x 91.5%.= ..$10.07 x 295 coins = $2,970.65. Now divide that figure by 2000 coins to realize $1.48 each. In other words, 1965 to 1970 US Kennedy (40%) Half Dollars each have 14.79% of a silver ounce per coin and a way to calculate the dollar value is to use a figure of 0.1479 x spot silver price per coin
This site will determine US dollar value of silver content in Canadian coinage.
During WWII the US Government, in their infinite wisdom, removed nickel from the 'nickel' 5Cent piece presumably because nickel was required for thee war effort (although they actually increased the nickel percentage in other coins!). These nickels produced between War nickels containing silver have a large mintmark above the building on the reverse.) Each war time nickel contains 1.75 grams of silver, 18 coins make 1 ounce of silver, a 40 coin roll contains 2.25 ounces of silver.
How are various metal prices quoted?
These quotes are out of date, but represent how metals are quoted and provide commonly cited sources:
Scrap Precious Metal
For 24k scrap
gold, offer between 92% and 95% of spot gold price. Here are the percentages of
spot gold price you should offer for other karats:
14k....white metals should be tested.
- 24 karat is
24 carat is essential pure (elemental) gold. This pure gold is rare except as a step in processing because pure gold is very malleable and does not hold its form very well. Therefore pure gold is typically not cast into jewelry or other objects.
Rare Earth Metals – A Short Primer
Rare Earth Metals (REE) are elements, typically metal, that are required for high tech development and manufacture of electronics, aerospace, military and similar products.
Some examples include:
Different analysts include varying example in their REE basket. For instance some would include Uranium while others would not.
Since REE are required for military applications, the mineral stocks are strategic store – a very competitive market exists for the rarest REE.
Extraction of these rare earths are similar to precious metal mining with a few notable differences.
Some of these extraction scenarios produce many more tons of overburden (waste rock) than precious metal mining. This is a social and environmental aspect that demands significant personnel resources and goodwill capital.
Here are a few popular blogs to read about REE.
NOTE: These sites may receive financial subsidies by manufacturers/miners for product placement and write-ups.
How to Invest In REE
Option One – Speculative: Stock Picking.
This option requires the most amount of due diligence and time and will typically only pay off for the savvy. You will need to focus on a sector within the industry. For example, if you look at the Uranium slice of the REE pie, you might find choose to stick with the larger producers such as Denison, Cameco (CCJ), etc.
Or, perhaps you want to allocate some very speculative wagers into micro firms that may be on to the next bid ore body and determine that Ucore or Fronteer, Uranerz (NYSE:URX) or Paladin have promise:
When you become familiar with current producers, and learn their ore bodies, at that point you can begin to extrapolate from that ore body and predict which explorers in nearby areas have higher likelihood of production. For example, Uranium City in Saskatchewan might provide a more likely source of future uranium deposit discovery than Chicago, right?
Option Two: The Funds
Pinetree Capital, PNPFF, has multiple uranium stocks and is one of the very few funds with exposure to the rare earths; the fund also holds potash and precious metal portfolio.
Option Three: ETF
The Rare Earth Metal Fund (REMX) just started trading (third quarter 2010).
The term base metals refer to those that will react with oxygen (though not necessarily 'oxidize'). Oxidize technically refers to the gaining of an electron from a donor especially via contact with HCl which releases H, not reacting to oxygen. Noble metals do not react with oxygen. Base metals include Iron, Nickel, Lead and Zinc. Copper is very reactive though not a base in the strictest sense because it will not react with HCl.
Copper is sold by the metric ton although the price is quoted in avidipouros pounds.
PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
This Gentleman, Jdurg, has put together the finest page on the Periodic Table available anywhere:
Sold commercially to manufacturers as 2024 plate.
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) produces more cobalt than anywhere else in the world.
Production in this world's biggest source will fall in 2006 as more small scale miners chase rising demand in other ores such as copper and aluminum. According to the Cobalt Development Institute, growing infrastructure needs and demand for high tech items such as batteries, cellphone batteries, computer and military equipment create an environment supportive of future investment in the sector. Hybrid vehicles currently use rechargeable batteries dependent upon cobalt technology.
"Man can no more do without iron than without fire and water. But gold and silver have no indispensable qualities. Human folly has made them precious only because of their scarcity." - Sir Thomas More ( 1478-beheaded 1535 ) Lord Chancellor of England. From ~Utopia~ ( 1516 ) .
hastily: the gods themselves
"Gold is, in the
last analysis, the sweat of the poor, and the blood of the brave." - Joseph
Bonaparte ( 1768-1844 ) , French barrister, King of Naples. ( Attributed )
"Gold is a child of God; neither moth nor rust devoureth it; but the mind of man is devoured by this supreme possession." - Pindar". ( c. 518-438 B.C. ) From ~Fragments~.
"Gold and riches,
the chief causes of war.
mortalia pectora cogis, Auri sacra fames."
Gold is a metallic chemical element. The chemical symbol is Au.
The number (atomic number) in the periodic table, group Ib, is 79.
Atomic Weight 196.9665
Melting point is 1,064.43°C;
Boiling Point 2,808°C
Specific Gravity 19.32 at 20°C [Gold weighs 19.3 times more than an equal volume of water]
Valence +1 or +3.
Why is Gold Yellow?
The Latin name for gold is aurum, which means 'shining dawn'. Many wars have been launched, settled, and prevented via an exchange of gold.
The hunt for gold to fill European coffers weakened by decades of war encouraged European nobility to send explorations into the New World.
Rose Gold - Also known as Russian gold or pink gold or red gold
18 karat rose gold is 25% copper and 75% gold. Sometime silver, up to 5% is used in place of gold.
14 karat rose gold is about 42% copper and 58% gold.
Tried and True
Gold is used primarily and most extensively as jewelry and the majority of gold currently above ground is in the form of jewelry. Gold in the form of bullion, coinage and currency is the second most prevalent use. Gold and its alloys are utilized in a wide variety of industrial applications such as the electronic, computer, dental and medical fields. The metal can be recovered from these hazardous waste streams (known as 'Universal Waste' and recycled.)
Capital and Collateral and backing for currency, gold coins
Art and Leisure
Goldschlager. Gold is a favorite of artisans because it can be formed into extremely thin sheets of gold leaf or ductile strand since it is the most malleable metal.
Optics; Electrical circuits used in space travel, semiconductors, computers, telephone and telecommunication equipment, sensors (air bags),
Rail Road Stakes,
gold medals, Stanley Cup
Tunable gold catalysts for selective hydrocarbon oxidation under mild conditions
Hughes1, Yi-Jun Xu1, Patrick Jenkins1, Paul McMorn1, Philip Landon1, Dan I.
Enache1, Albert F. Carley1, Gary A. Attard1, Graham J. Hutchings1, Frank King2,
E. Hugh Stitt2, Peter Johnston3, Ken Griffin3 & Christopher J. Kiely4
Catalyst for oxidation of carbon monoxide, dioxins, and...
Gold's electron shell: 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
Gold-198 half-life is 2.7 days.
Gold gilding on furniture and buildings
Treatment of Arthritis; Dental
New use for gold
Pieter Stroeve and his team have developed nano-sized membrane pores that may serve as the smallest available cables in mircroeclectornics.
The cables are composed of tellurium, cadmium sulfide, and layers with gold. - Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lasers can produce anti-matter using gold
“We’ve entered a new era. Now, that we’ve looked for it, it’s almost like it hit us right on the head. We envision a center for antimatter research, using lasers as cheaper antimatter factories.”
Gold usually forms in complex with other metals in various alloys. Silver and copper are common by products of gold mining. Gold containing 20% or more silver is known as electrum; gold alloyed with a lesser percentage of silver may be called 'green gold'. 'White gold' is an alloy with platinum or palladium and a hardening metal such as nickel.
Miners usually discover gold in association with other precious and base metals such as silver and copper. Gold is disseminated to the surface via hydrothermal processes and is often deposited as a quartz vein. Another common distribution is via fine dust, flakes or nuggets either on the surface or in an alluvial placer lode.
The countries with the largest modern gold production are:
1) South Africa; 2) United States (Nevada); 3) Australia; Canada and Russia. Mali, Guyana, Venezuela and Guinea Bisseau are burgeoning gold producers.
Find out much more about gold mining here:
Gold flour can be recovered via solution and separation with a mix of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acids known as 'aqua regia' producing chlorine as a byproduct. The trick is recovery of gold via electrolyzing the metal salts.
Gold is a fine electrical conductor, surpassed only by copper and silver. Gold is a stable and fairly uncreative chemical which means it will not be affected by exposure to moisture, oxygen, or ordinary acids. However, halogens will change gold's chemical structure. Gold can form univalent (aurous) and (trivalent) auric compounds, typically as auric chloride or chloroauric acid.
The carat scale is used to state the alloy percentage of gold. One carat is a 24th part by weight. Hence, pure gold is 24 carats fine - usually called 24 C fine. Various terminology describes fineness depending whether the context is one of mining, jewelry or other.
Nevada Crystalline Gold - Electrum Leaf
Thin, delicate and fragile - gaining lengths up to several inches yet weighing only a few grams - Round Mountain, Nevada, samples produce some of the finest examples of electrum leaf or herringbone gold. Crystalline Gold in general is very delicate to extract without damage to the specimen.
Tens of millions of years ago pressure within the earths core pushed up gold - in a bisulfied complex solution - through hydrothermal cracks at extreme pressure and temperatures. Upon reaching seams near the surface, both temperature and pressure are lowered. Therefore, the molten gold cools. When this molten is exposed to extremely heater steam vents, the molten gold crystallizes as it cools.
Crystalline gold has one (wire or sponge), two (leaf) or three (crystals) axes. Certain bacteria, such as pedomicrobium may produce 'budding' when found within electrum.
Electrum crystalline gold found within former geothermal vents, now called voids, are called Bonanzas.
Gold has a density of about nineteen grams per cubic centimeter. Because of this, it is extremely hard to produce forgeries of coins or ingots via substitution of other metals. Tungsten and Uranium provide similar densities, within standard measurement errors. Other than these two metals no other are equivalent. And up until very recently jewelry work with tungsten had been fairly rare, although the metal is now a fashionable one. The method for forging bars, coins and ingots is to hollow out the bar, and insert a lesser valuable but still dense metal, such as tungsten.
About twenty other metals have higher density than gold. Since some of these are expensive in their own right, they are not commonly used in gold forgeries. Figuring our the out the volume of the bar, coin or ingot is one key to determining authenticity. The displacement method provides a regular and fairly accurate way to determine authenticity of bars, coins and ingot. Here are the steps:
Obtain a sturdy and regular-shaped plastic container. The container walls should be completely perpendicular to the bottom. Corners should be square to both the walls and the floor. Fill the container up with water. Draw a line at the top of the water line (meniscus, for you bourgeoning hydrologists). Put the gold bar/coin/ingot into the container. Because the metal will displace water, the water line will rise in the container. The key is to use a container that is only a little bigger than the ingot. (You won't be able to see the ocean rise even if you through in the Empire State Building).
Mark the top of this new water line. Using an accurate and fine measuring tape, measure the difference in height of the water line from before to after the gold was put in. Since you can determine the interior dimension of the box, using the same measuring tape, you are now able to calculate the volume of the bar. When you divide mass by volume, you get density. In this case, you value should be around 19 grams/cubic centimeter (cc) - the approximate density of gold. If the value you get is different, then repeat the experiment carefully. If the value is still wrong, you might have a counterfeit and now you need to conduct additional tests.
method to conduct a density test is to weigh the ingot in both water and air.
To measure a coin in water, you first must get the weight of the container and
the water in it (this is called the 'tare') and then add the coin and re-weigh
the coin, water, and container. air and weigh it in water. Its weight in air
less its weight in water divided into its
We have a few very good books available on detecting counterfeit gold coins in our reference section.
Major North American Gold Mines (Open Pit)
Summitville Gold Mine. Summitville, Colorado
Zortman Landusky Gold Mine. Lodgepole, Montana.
Lone Tree Mine. Winnemucca Nevada.
Bullfrog Mine. Beatty Nevada (Reclaimed)
Gold Bullion Coins
WORLD GOLD COINS
South African Krugerrand
1 troy ounce 31.104, it weighs 33.9305 grams
British gold sovereigns
The Place and Venue and Time to really discuss Silver:
Silver makes itself useful as:
Bearings (silver coated)
Silver is an efficient chemical analyst. Curiously, silver serves as the only currently known catalyst to change ethylene into ethylene oxide, a component in plastic manufacturing.
Silver membrane switches
Silver-jacket oxide wires can carry up to 150x the electric current of copper wire.
Water filtration and treatment
Silver is the best reflector of the visible light spectrum of all metals. Second only to gold for ductile malleability.
Ever hear of Sterling Silver or a Sterling Pound?
Silver plate is not solid silver. It is a service ware made of a base metal, typically copper or nickel, that is then covered with a thin coating of silver.
What is on your teacup?
-Maker date vs. guild mark
-Makers mark vs Hallmark vs Fineness Mark
-Patent date or number
Lucky enough to have a Birk's mark (high quality Canadian silver company)?
American Silver Marks
Look on your mother's, lovers, mistress, S/O, brokeress' or wife's silver set. What is stamped on the inside of the spoon?
The numbers, .900, .925, 4, 6? or some combination thereof.
Big topic; there are many whole books devoted to silver marks.
Nice site for difference on silver marks in various countries:
improperly using hallmarks, or falsely reporting silver purity had previously
been an offense punishable by death in more than one society.
In the historic
archeology context, a silverplate mark is known as a diagnostic. Diagnostic
identification is essential to the collectibles market; china glassware,
furniture coins etc. E.g, what is the diagnostic to verify that your 41/2
overdate silver mercury dime is the real thing?
For over two thousand years people have known about and benefited from the antimicrobial uses of silver. This is why silver cups and goblet and silverware exists. For the last approximate 100 years that large petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries have spent untold millions to discredit time honored medicinal practices that utilize naturally occurring elements and compounds in order to create artificial markets for their wares. Despite this practice, silver use in antimicrobial and other medicinal uses continues to flourish. Silver interferes with microbial ability to multiply; as such microbes do not develop a resistance to silver.
Silver plated linens and silver plated filament yarn are worn to reduce swelling and inflation in patients and extreme sports participants. The size and type of silver delivered is extremely important to utilize the beneficial qualities of silver. Nano particle sized silver has seen particular research and development activity over the last 15 years. For instance, Samsung has begun using nanosilver linings in washing machines to reduce microbial populations in grey water and on equipment surfaces.
A. B. Searle; The Use of Colloids in Health and Disease. British Medical Journal, May 12, 1917
Opposing Positions on Colloidal Silver:
One of the most unstable metal salts, she is quite a sensitive lady - shock sensitive and able to explode under water.
The first neutral, molecular silver(I) alkoxide carbene complex!
35-year Silver Chart
Silver teapots, cups or other items difficult to reach into can be cleaned by filling with warm water. Add a five minute denture-cleaning tablet per every two cups of water and let sit for ten minutes. Wipe off residue with a soft bristled horse or camel-hair brush. Repeat if necessary.
SILVER BAR PRODUCERS
A & W SMELTER AND REFINERS
Special Thanks to MidPacific Gold and Silver
Major US Copper Mines (Surface strip mines)
Robinson Mine. Ely, White Pine County, Nevada. Currently operated by Quadra Mining.
San Manuel Mine. San Manuel Arizona
Baghdad Copper Mine. Jerome, Arizona.
They're looking for Gallium at the Wonder Mine, Humboldt Co., Nv.
In the body, selenium binds with mercury and aids in removal. Strong black and green teas are also theorized as cleansing and metal chelating agents serving to detoxify the body of heavy metals.
Mercury Fulminate [Hg(ONC)2], aka mercury(II) cyanate. The Japanese used this primarily as a primary explosive in fuzed high detonation rounds. US industry used in blasting caps. This material is shock sensitive, dangerous especially as it ages.
Mercury is recyclable. As such, it is a type of hazardous waste known as a universal waste. Mercury switches, thermostats and barometers are types of universal wastes. Unfortunately, mercury in florescent lights is not conducive to recycling.
About mercury. Somebody asked me a bit about Hg, here was my preliminary primer on the mercurial one:
"Getting a lil’ bit personal, ain’t ya?
Lots of news lately about mercury in the water. Two important things you must keep in mind 1) Hg is transition metal. 2) Of all transitional metals, Hg is superlative IMO. In transition, how else do you think my ‘mercurial’ qualities could transpose from demi-god to mere mortal?
Why is one who is mercurial ever shape-changing, ephemeral, shrewdness, eloquent, quick and dark/moody? Absolutely fascinating element, perhaps my favorite after C, and Au.
Mercury is a b!tch to speciate. U gata have great control when conducting lab speciation. Methodology is cold vapor atomic fluorescence. If u want more technical lab info, search EPA 1631 in yahoo/dogpile (I no longer google). Basically, u can measure it as total, dissolved, total and dissolved methyl mercury, and if ure really good, as II.
You have to remember that mercury isn’t usually found in water because it usually isn’t LOOKED for in water. most scientist looking for mercury are looking for it in fatty tissue, as mono-methylmercury. Water will sequester Hg so it isn't bioavailable. Nobody really looks for it in water. Some look for it in soil and sediment where it is much easier to both qualify and quantify.
U can methlate in toluene,
U can demethylate using gas strip/sparge; and dry alkali soils will demethylate to CH4
For whatever reason, I have happened to live in two of the biomes in N. america with the worst mercury issues, SF Bay and Carson River Sink.
However, Ima going to look into my crystal ball and guess that you are actually referring to mercury in water in s. america. Maybe Brazil and current micro mining techniques? Am I right?
Something (among the many things) that amuses me, is how many of the anti-mining enviro-nazis don’t realize how mining actually developed most of the metal remediation methods currently used today!
Q: >Mercury amalgamates with gold, but I don't know what amalgamates means.
Yeah, amalgamation is absolutely fascinating! Think of it this way, you are trying to marry two metals, and can use any way to get them to stick together except temperature. So, does pressure count?!?!
Amalgamation is both chemical (allodial) and physical (partition, adherenece, adsorption, absorption). Ah yes, mercury and gold – battle of the two grandest metals.
Q: If the contamination is the free metal, could you remove the mercury contamination by passing the water over an ultrathin layer of gold, like a gold plated radiator? If you drop a thermometer in your house, and the mercury vaporizes, can you remove it by putting gold coins throughout the rooms?????
R u for reals here?
Think of alloidal composition; where the base is over %50. More like dropping a gold coin into a vat of mercury rather than getting particles to cleave to the coin. Are u talking molecular-thin? Gold-plated as in steel or aluminum with gold on top for prettiness? You wouldn’t even have the Hg in contact w/ Au. Moreover, the radiator implies heat, and therefore you don’t have true almagamation.
As far as the thermometer in the house, and removing using gold coins – that is hilariously funny. A great image, but won’t work.
Now, you tell me why. Some clues:
Why is vapor pressure measured in millimeters mercury?
Also, I don’t care how pure you think your Phillharmonics are, it ain’t pure gold.
For a public safety message: do not try this at home.
Mercury can be present in old electrical equipment and thermostats.
Mercury is VERY DANGEROUS. CAN and DOES KILL.
Mercury can enter you body by all routes of exposure.
DO NOT HEAT or VAPORIZE Hg UNLESS YOU REALLY KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING!
There are specifically designed spill kits for mercury (basically a vacuum separation method)
really, don’t even get near it if you don’t have to.
In other words, don’t feck with me…
Gold, on the other hand, is very friendly. Go buy some tomorrow!!!
(discussion on Gold/ammonia fulminates for a different day, he he he)
Creating a mercury amalgam for gold separation: Wet solution
Upon combination with Nitric Acid, Mercury forms Mercuric nitrate, which stays in solution. The mercury cannot be contaminated. One way to ensure free mercury is via distillation. CAUTION: Mercury distillation requires a very good fume hood. NEVER heat mercury without proper equipment, knowledge and engineering controls. The safer alternative for purifying mercury is pressure filtering through cheesecloth or a shammy.
To elicit a gold/mercury amalgam, place gold flour into a rock tumbler or clave. Add water to mercury so that a slurry is produced and then add nitric acid to the slurry (just a few drops from a dropper is sufficient to activate the mercury and form Mercuric nitrate. Turn the tumbler and the gold flour will amalgamate with the Mercuric nitrate in the mercury slurry.
To separate the gold, put the mercury into a nitric acid solution. It is essential to maintain temperature control during dissolution by using sufficient quantities of water. Otherwise it is possible to produce mercuric nitrate, an unwanted yellowish precipitate. Under extreme heat during the dissolution phase one can even change the Au valency state.
One of the oldest technique for gilding, called "best gilding" or "solid gilding", requires that gold of extremely high purity is mixed with mercury. The mixture is then applied to the piece requiring treatment and fired to roughly 725 degrees Celsius. Since mercury has a lower boiling point than gold, the mercury is boiled off off leaving gold. The gold gild requires burnishing to restore a glimmering appearance.
Mercury in Poetry
(One by Pope John Paul II)
This poem was written by Karol Wojtyla - Pope John Paul II, under the pen name Andrzej Jawien
Used for stainless steel and pipelines. A basic construction material. Similar to tungsten for the ability to withstand high temperatures and corrosion.
Major Molybdenum Mines
Questa (MolyCorps) Mine. Questa New, Mexico
Austenitic steel is subject to pitting in high chloride environments. Duplex steel is sometimes used instead. Or titanium. SS is not good with seawater at ambient temperatures. Most troubling is the lack of warning before catastrophic failure. It can perform fine one day and then fail the next. Sometimes a light red color change can indicate trouble.
For when it absolutely must be don right, use titanium or stainless steel.
These folks offer titanium commercially:
As of summer 2006, Tungsten jewelry has just started to get hot, fashion-wise - on the west coast. We've seen Tungsten jewelry showing up in certain shops in California, Nevada and even Idaho.
Spelter - Zinc metalwork, artwork
Good metal plating will often have a base coat to ensure that the final coat takes better and produces an appearance more pleasing to the eye. For example, gold plated metals may have an underplate of silver.
Chrome plating typically has nickel plating which is polished and then a chrome plate is added. Really good chrome plating has a copper plate with polished nickel overlain and then the chrome applied.
Silver Bullion Coins
Platinum Bullion Coins
How to Work With Metal
American Machinists Handbook. Colvin and Stanley. Seventh Edition. Maple Press Company. McGraw Hill Book Company. 1940. 1,387 pages. Cover is well worn with light damage. Pages are in very good condition. Net almost good. An important reference work. $19.95
History of Metal Use:
Electrum - An alloy of gold and silver first used by the Greeks in coinage starting approximately 600 BC.
SMELTING BULLION AND COINS
Is it illegal to smelt US coins to recover their metal value?
According to the US Treasury, no:
Is it illegal to damage or deface coins?
Section 331 of Title 18 of the United States code provides criminal penalties for anyone who “fraudulently alters, defaces, mutilates impairs, diminishes, falsifies, scales, or lightens any of the coins coined at the Mints of the United States.” This statute means that you may be violating the law if you change the appearance of the coin and fraudulently represent it to be other than the altered coin that it is. As a matter of policy, the U.S. Mint does not promote coloring, plating or altering U.S. coinage: however, there are no sanctions against such activity absent fraudulent intent.
Note, the US Treasury also states something else interesting on this same webpage. Namely, they will replace damaged circulated coins for their metal value.
What is the definition of mutilated coins? Is it illegal for people to use coins to make jewelry, souvenirs or other items?
"Those coins are classified either as not current or as mutilated. Coins that are chipped, fused, and not machine-countable are considered mutilated. The Mint redeems mutilated coins at the value of their metal content. Mutilated coins are only redeemable through the United States Mint at:
Mutilation with the intent to commit fraud is illegal.
Title 18, Chapter 17, and Section 331, "prohibits the mutilation, diminution and falsification of United States coinage."
Hence, altering a mintmark to gains from the sale is illegal whereas melting down a coin for its intrinsic metal value is not.
How to melt a penny (Note: Zinc melts at 419.58 C [about 787 F.] whereas Copper melts at 1083.4 C).
CAUTION: ZINC FUMES ARE TOXIC
(Now why didn't I think of that!?!)
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